What Is Green Revolution In India?
What is Green Revolution?
The Green Revolution, or the Third Agricultural Revolution, is the set of research technology transfer leadership transpiring between the year 1950 and the late 1960s. That expanded agricultural production worldwide, beginning most notably in the late 1960s.
The term Green Revolutions relates to the method or process which helps to boosts the production of food grains using high-yielding types, fertilizers, pesticides, modern equipment, and technology.
The one key leader of the Green Revolution was Norman Borlaug. Norman is the “Father of the Green Revolution.”, who also received the Nobel Peace Prize in the year 1970.
In India, the term green revolution relates to a time when agriculture was changed into the industrial system due to the adoption of modern methods and technology. In India green revolution was mainly led by the agricultural scientist M. S. Swaminathan.
In India, Punjab was the state where the green revolution introduced the first in the year 1960. The green revolution continued from 1965-1977 and mainly increased food crop production in the states of Punjab, Haryana, and Rajasthan. Which helps India to change its status from a food deficient country to one of the leading agricultural nations in the world.
Before the green revolution, the government of India only targeting to increase the farming land for food production. But the food production much more laser than the population and therefore the green revolution comes in the form of a solution to this situation. The green revolution in India was most successful over the countries.
The three basic elements on which the green revolution mainly focused are:
- Expansion of agricultural land
- Two crops in a year in existing farmland
- Using high yielding crops and seeds with improved genetics
Benefits of the green revolution n India:
- An increase in food grain production helped the Indian Government to become self-governing and self-confident in producing food grains in the country instead of relying on imports of the food grains from outside. The food crop’s output increased by more than tens of millions of extra tonnes per year. The green revolution resulted in a record grain amount of 131 million tonnes in the year 1978/79.
- As the increase in farm production results increment in earning of the farmers, however, this helped only to the farmer who has landed more than 10 hectares.
- Importing of food grain from outside or other countries decreased to a greater amount and increased in a position to export food grains. Besides this, enough stock of food grains was also possible to deal with the shortage of food. Moreover, it also raised the per capita net availability of food-grains from 395 grams per day to 436 grams despite the rise in population
- It also encouraged the growth of the industry that is included in the production of material required in farming on a large scale such as tractors, combines, harvesters, threshers, electric motors, diesel engines, etc. Moreover, the industry involved in the production of fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, etc.
- The increase in the agriculture industry due to industrial farming created new jobs for the workers.
Impacts of Green Revolution in India
The high-yielding variety of programmes was restricted to five crops only, named as Wheat, Rice, Jowar, Bajra, and Maize. For this reason, the non-good grains were excluded from the scope of a new strategy.
Wheat has remained the strength of the Green Revolution over the years. The Green Revolution occurred in a single grain output of more than 130 million tonnes in the year 1978-79. Because of this, India was established as one of the world’s largest agricultural producers.
Yield per unit of farmland improved by more than 30% between 1947 (when India gained political independence) and 1979. The crop area under high-yielding types of wheat and rice increased considerably during the Green Revolution.
The Green Revolution helps to create lots of jobs not only for agricultural workers but also industrial workers by creating related facilities such as factories and hydroelectric energy plants.
The deceleration in Agricultural Growth Rates in the Reform
Period: After registering remarkable performance during the year 1980s, the agricultural extension slows down decelerated in the economic change period. As it clear, the rate of growth of production of food grains dropped from 2.9 percent per annum in the year 1980s to 2.0 percent per annum in the year 1990s and reached 2.1 percent per annum in the first decade of the modern century. The period since 1991, appears as a kind of corner at a time when growth in Indian agriculture.
Causes of Delay in Agricultural Growth
The main reason behind the delay in agricultural growth in the post-reform period have been:
- Contracting farm size
- Failure to evolve new technologies
- Poor irrigation cover
- Low use of technology
- Unbalanced use of inputs
- The decline in plan outlay
- Defects in credit delivery system
The Question of Labour Absorption
Although there is a difference of view amongst economists about the effects of new agricultural strategy on interpersonal differences and actual wages of agricultural workers, there is a general agreement that the adoption of new technology has reduced labor consumption in agriculture.
Change in Attitudes: A strong contribution of the green revolution is the change in the attitudes of farmers in states where the new agricultural strategy was followed. An increase in productivity in these areas has become the status of agriculture from a low-level maintenance activity to a money-making activity.