The 5 Different Parts Of The Computer
What is Computer?
The basic and main part of the computer is the computer case, monitor, keyboard, mouse, and power cord. Each part of the computer plays an important role when we use a computer. It’s a high place to start if you want to start learning about computers. Not only is it a good entry point, but it’s also something good to know for curiosity’s interest.
Every computer receives input from a different device, processes that data with the CPU and memory, and sends results in some form of output.
1. The Central Processing Unit (CPU)
The Central Processing Unit is one of the most important parts of computers. It is also called as brain of the computer, main processor, central processor, or only processor. The CPU responsible for controlling, arithmetic, logic, controlling, and input/output defined by the instructions into the program.
CPU placed usually in a socket that uses a tool or a latch with a hinged plate with a cut out in the center to secure it onto the motherboard.
It has several copper pads beneath it for the contacts with the socket to push up against them to make electrical contact.
A processor generates a decent amount of heat, especially when it is working under high charges. It will run even hotter when it is set to a higher clock speed to make it run faster. This is called overclocking.
Features of Central Processing Units
- CPU is known as the brain of the computer.
- CPU executes all types of data processing services.
- It stores data, average results, and directions (program).
- It manages the operation of all parts of the computer.
CPU itself has three components as following.
- Memory or Storage Unit
- Control Unit.
- ALU(Arithmetic Logic Unit)
All component/parts of the computer communicate with each other through circuit board called as motherboard.
Motherboard is one of the main board screwed inside the computer case directly. Other cards and everything will plug directly into motherboard. Motherboard is connected to CPU, RAM, drives, power supply. Its function is to combine all the components so they can interact and operate together.
A good motherboard gives a broad amount of connectivity options. It also has the least amount of jams as possible. This allows all the components to operate easily and to fulfill their maximum potential as they were meant to do.
3.RAM: Random Access Memory
Random-access memory is a data storage device that provides fast read and writes access. RAM is also light which means that it loses all the stored data at the when moment power is lost. The RAM holds data ready for the CPU for processing. The speed of the RAM is a big giver to the overall speed of a computer. It too has a clock pace, just like a processor. So, it can also be accelerated to deliver raised performance beyond the intended specification.
Types of RAM –
- Static RAM
- Dynamic RAM
Static RAM (SRAM) -
The word static symbolizes that the memory holds its contents as long as power is being supplied. However, Once the power gets down all data is lost due to its volatile nature.
Static RAM uses no capacitors and a matrix of 6-transistors. Transistors do not need power to stop leakage, so SRAM need not be refreshed regularly. Static RAM does use more chips than the Dynamic RAM for the same amount of storage space as there is extra space available in the matrix, giving the production costs higher. Static RAM is thus used as cache memory and has very quick access.
Dynamic RAM (DRAM) –
Dynamic RAM, unlike Static RAM, must need to refresh continually to maintain the data. This can be done by placing the memory at a refresh circuit that rewrites the data many hundred times per second.
Dynamic RAM is used most for system memory as it is cheap and small. All Dynamic RAMs are made up of memory cells, which are made of one capacitor and one transistor.
4.Input Output Devices
The use of a computer system is depend on the combined mode of both input and output devices. Using an input device we can give directions to the computer to act and the device returns to our action through an output device. Most maximum devices are only input devices or either output devices, as they can just take data input from a user or output data generated by a computer.
However, some of the devices can receive input and display output, and they are referred to as Input/Output devices. An Input or Output device can receive data from users, or another device (input), and send data to a different device (output).
Input – The input device sends data to another device, but it is not able to receive data from another device.
Output – Output device able to receive data from another device and create output with that data, but not able to send data to another device.
The hard drive is a nonvolatile data storage device. It is usually placed within a computer, connected directly to the disk monitor of the computer’s motherboard. A hard drive involves one or more platters, placed inside of an air-sealed cover.
Data is written to the platters using magnetic energy, which flows rapidly over them as they spin. A hard drive is also required for the establishment of any programs or other files you want to keep on your computer. Downloaded files are permanently stored on the hard drive or another storage system until they removed or uninstalled manually.
The hard disk in the computer is a secondary storage device, which is created to store data permanently. The secondary storage devices hold a large amount of storage space as opposed to the primary storage devices. When the computer system shuts down the data stored in the hard disk is retained. The data stored into the hard disk can be of various types like installed software, documents, operating systems, other files such as videos, documents, images, and many more.
The hard disk was introduced by IBM in the year 1956. The first hard drive of the personal computer was less than 1 megabyte, While nowadays modern computers contain 1 terabyte of the hard drive. Every computer must contain at least one hard drive to store the data and software for use.
In different operating systems hard drive called by a different name like in Windows hard drive called a C drive, and in MAC it is called a hard drive only. The other computers like desktops used for backup purposes or additional storage having external hard drives.
The size of the hard drive usually measured in megabytes, gigabytes, and terabytes. Normally, a 500 GB hard drive is normal on the computer nowadays. As an example, if a video of something having size 4MB and 1 gigabyte, there are 1000 MB which simply means the 500GB hard drive can store approximately 250,000 songs.