Green Revolution In India?

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The Green Revolution, or the Third Agricultural Revolution, is the set of research technology transfer leadership transpiring between the years 1950 and the late 1960s.

The green revolution expanded agricultural production worldwide, beginning most notably in the late 1960s.

The term Green Revolutions relates to the method or process which helps to boosts the production of food grains using high-yielding types, fertilizers, pesticides, modern equipment, and technology.

The one key leader of the Green Revolution was Norman Borlaug. Norman is the “Father of the Green Revolution.”, who also received the Nobel Peace Prize in the year 1970.

In India, the term green revolution relates to a time when agriculture was changed into the industrial system due to the adoption of modern methods and technology.

In India green revolution was mainly led by the agricultural scientist M. S. Swaminathan.

An agricultural scientist M. S. Swaminathan, mainly led the green revolution in India. Swaminathan is also known as the “Father of Green Revolution in India“.

In India, Punjab was the state where the green revolution was introduced the first in the year 1960. The green revolution continued from 1965 to 1977 and mainly increased food crop production in the states of Punjab, Haryana, and Rajasthan.

This all helps India to change its status from a food deficient country to one of the leading agricultural nations in the world.

Before the green revolution, the government of India only targeted to increase the farming land for food production.

But, as compared to the population, the food production was much lower, and hence the green solution is come out as a solution for this problem

The green revolution in India became the most successful in the country and many farmers took the benefits of the same.

The three basic elements on which the green revolution mainly focused are:

  • Expansion of agricultural land
  • Two crops in a year in existing farmland
  • Using high yielding crops and seeds with improved genetics

Objectives of Green Revolution

  • Short Term: The revolution was launched to address India’s hunger extremity during the alternate Five Year Plan.
  • Long Term: The long term objects included overall husbandry modernization grounded on pastoral development, artificial development; structure, raw material etc.
  • Employment: To give employment to both agrarian and artificial workers.
  • Scientific Studies: Producing stronger shops that could repel extreme climates and conditions.
  • Globalization of the Agricultural World: By spreading technology to-industrialized nations and setting up numerous pots in major agrarian areas.

Main Crops in the Revolution:

  •  Major crops were Wheat, Rice, Jowar, Bajra and Maize.
  • Non-food grains were barred from the dimension of the new strategy.
  • The green revolution in India has remained dependent on wheat for a long time.

How Did The Green Revolution Begin In India And Who Sowed Its Seed

Importance of Green Revolution in Indian economy

  • An increase in food grain production helped the Indian Government to become self-governing and self-confident in producing food grains in the country instead of relying on imports of the food grains from outside.
  • The food crop’s output increased by more than tens of millions of extra tonnes per year.
  • As the increase in farm production results increment in earning of the farmers, however, this helped only to the farmer who has landed more than 10 hectares.
  • Importing of food grain from outside or other countries decreased to a greater amount and increased in a position to export food grains.
  • Besides this, enough stock of food grains was also possible to deal with the shortage of food. Moreover, it also raised the per capita net availability of food grains from 395 grams per day to 436 grams despite the rise in population.
  • It also encouraged the growth of the industry that is included in the production of material required in farming on a large scale such as tractors, combines, harvesters, threshers, electric motors, diesel engines, etc. Moreover, the industry is involved in the production of fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, etc.
  • The increase in the agriculture industry due to industrial farming created new jobs for the workers.

Benefits of the green revolution n India

  • An increase in food grain production helped the Indian Government to become self-governing and self-confident in producing food grains in the country instead of relying on imports of the food grains from outside.
  • The output of the food crop’s increased by more than eleven million extra tonnes per year.
  • As a result of the green revolution, the gain amount recorded more than 130 million tonnes in the year 1978 to 1979
  • As the increase in farm production results increment in earning of the farmers, however, this helped only to the farmer who has landed more than 10 hectares.
  • Importing of food grain from outside or other countries decreased to a greater amount and increased in a position to export food grains. Besides this, enough stock of food grains was also possible to deal with the shortage of food. Moreover, it also raised the per capita net availability of food grains from 395 grams per day to 436 grams despite the rise in population.
  • It also encouraged the growth of the industry that is included in the production of material required in farming on a large scale such as tractors, combines, harvesters, threshers, electric motors, diesel engines, etc. Moreover, the industry is involved in the production of fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, etc.
  • The increase in the agriculture industry due to industrial farming created new jobs for the workers.

drawbacks of the green revolution

Moreover, According to some social activists and scientists, although it increased production, there were also some drawbacks of the green revolution such as:

  • The use of pesticides in a large manner caused some financial, sociological, and environmental issues, that also caused human health.
  • Not able to create or generate the other seeds of crops in other parts of India, as it mainly focused on only some food crops.
  • It was only helpful and profitable for the big farmer as the small farmers were not able to invest in the new technology and fertilizers.
  • The use of the new high-yielding varieties caused genetic erosion and the salinity of land was increased due to the increase the agricultural land.
  • Moreover, it only helps some states of India to increase food grain production. In other states or part, the result was not so impressive

Impacts of Green Revolution in India

The high-yielding variety of programmes was restricted to five crops only, named Wheat, Rice, Jowar, Bajra, and Maize. For this reason, the non-good grains were excluded from the scope of a new strategy.

For over the years, the strength of the green revolution has remained on Wheat

The Green Revolution occurred in a single grain output of more than 130 million tonnes in the year 1978-79. Because of this, India was established as one of the world’s largest agricultural producers.

During the years 1947 and 1979, the earning of farmlands are improved by more than 30 per cent per unit.

The high yielding types of wheat and rice increased extensively during the green revolution.

The Green Revolution helps to create lots of jobs not only for agricultural workers but also industrial workers by creating related facilities such as factories and hydroelectric energy plants.

The deceleration in Agricultural Growth Rates in the Reform Period:

After registering remarkable performance during the year the 1980s, the agricultural extension slows down decelerated in the economic change period.

As it is clear, the rate of growth of production of food grains dropped from 2.9 per cent per annum in the year the 1980s to 2.0 per cent per annum in the year 1990s and reached 2.1 per cent per annum in the first decade of the modern century.

The period since 1991, appears as a kind of corner at a time when growth in Indian agriculture.


Source: Home Revise, YouTube

Positive Impacts of Green Revolution

  •  Massive Increase in Crop Produce: It resulted in a grain outcome of 131 million tonnes in the year 1978-79 and set India as one of the world’s largest farming producers.
    • The harvest area under high-yielding types of wheat and rice increased extensively during the Green Revolution.
  • Less Import of Food-Grains: India evolved self-sufficient in food-grains and had good stock in the central pool, even, at times, India was in a rank to export food-grains.
    • The per capita net availability of food seeds has also increased.
  • Advantages to the Farmers: Because of the green revolution farmers are able to increase their income level.
    • Farmers ploughed back their surplus income for improving farming productivity.
    • The big farmers with more than 10 hectares of land were particularly advantaged by this revolution by investing a massive volume of money in several inputs like HYV seeds, fertilizers, machines, etc. It also promoted capitalist farming.
  • Industrial Growth: The Revolution obtained about large-scale farm mechanization which created a demand for different types of machines like tractors, harvesters, threshers, combines, diesel engines, electric motors, pumping sets, etc.
    • Similarly, the need for chemical fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, weedicides, etc. also raised considerably.
    • Several farming products were also used as raw materials in different industries known as agro-based industries.
  • Rural Employment: There was an observable increase in the demand for the labor force due to multiple cropping and the use of fertilizers.
    • The Green Revolution begin plenty of jobs not only for agricultural labour but also manufacturing labour by creating related facilities such as factories and hydroelectric power stations.

Negative Impacts of Green Revolution

  • Non-Food Seeds Left Out: Although all food seeds including Wheat, Rice, Jawar, Bajra, and sludge have gained from the revolution, other crops similar to coarse cereals, beats, and oilseeds were exited out of the scope of the revolution.
    • Main marketable crops like cotton, jute, tea, and sugarcane were also left nearly unchanged by the Green Revolution.
  • Finite Coverage of HYVP: High Yielding Variety Programme (HYVP) was confined to only five crops Wheat, Rice, Jowar, Bajra, and Maize.
    • Thus, non-food seeds were barred from the compass of the new strategy.
    • The HYV seeds in the non-food crops were either not progressed so far or they weren’t good enough for cultivators to risk their relinquishment.
  • Regional Difference:
    • Green Revolution technology has given delivery to rising differences in fiscal issues at buried and intraregional situations.
    • It has so far concerned only 40% of the total cropped area and 60% is still untouched by it.
    • The most influential areas are Punjab, Haryana, and western Uttar Pradesh in the north and Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in the south.
    • It has slightly handled the Eastern region, including Assam, Bihar, West Bengal, and Orissa, and thirsty and semi-arid areas of Western and Southern India.
    • The Green Revolution concerned only those areas which were formerly better placed from a husbandry point of view.
    • Therefore the problem of indigenous differences has been further aggravated as a result of the Green Revolution.
  • Inordinate Operation of Chemicals: The Green Revolution outgrowth in the large-scale use of fungicides and artificial nitrogen diseases for bettered irrigation schemes and crop types.
    • Yet, little or no sweats were made to prepare growers about the high threat associated with the ferocious use of fungicides.
    • Fungicides were spread on crops generally by unskilled ranch workers without following instructions or preventives.
    • This causes further detriment than good to crops and also becomes a cause of environmental and soil pollution.
  • Water Consumption: The crops presented during the green revolution were water-ferocious crops.
    • Utmost of these crops being cereals needed nearly 50 of salutary water footmark.
    • Canal styles were introduced, and irrigation pumps also smelled out the groundwater to deliver the water-ferocious crops, similar as sugarcane and rice, therefore exhausting the groundwater situations.
    • Punjab is major wheat and rice – cultivating place, and hence it’s one of the altitudinous water-exhaust regions in India.
  • Effect on Soil and Crop Production: Repeated crop cycle to insure increased crop product depleted the soil’s nutrients.
    • To meet the demands of new types of seeds, growers raised toxin operations.
    • The pH position of the soil increased due to the operation of these alkaline chemicals.
    • Poisonous chemicals in the soil destroyed salutary pathogens, which further led to a decline in the yield.
  • Unemployment: Except in Punjab, and to some extent in Haryana, ranch industrialization under the Green Revolution created overall severance among tilling sloggers in the pastoral areas.
    • The worst affected were the poor and the landless sloggers.
  • Health Hazards: The large-scale use of chemical diseases and fungicides similar as Phosphamide, Methomyl, Pharate, Triazophos, and Monocrotophos redounded in several critical health ails including cancer, renal failure, stillborn babies, and birth blights.

Causes of Delay in Agricultural Growth

Below are the important reasons behind the delay in agricultural growth in post-reform periods.

  • Contracting farm size
  • Failure to evolve new technologies
  • Poor irrigation cover
  • Low use of technology
  • Unbalanced use of inputs
  • The decline in plan outlay
  • Defects in credit delivery system

The Question of Labour Absorption

Although there is a difference of view amongst economists about the effects of new agricultural strategy on interpersonal differences and actual wages of agricultural workers, there is a general agreement that the adoption of new technology has reduced labor consumption in agriculture.

Change in Attitudes

A strong contribution of the green revolution is the change in the attitudes of farmers in states where the new agricultural strategy was followed.

An increase in productivity in these areas has become the status of agriculture from a low-level maintenance activity to a money-making activity.

Bottom Line

  • Overall, the Green Revolution was a major achievement for numerous developing countries, especially India and gave them an unknown position of public food security.
    • It represented the successful adaption and transfer of the same scientific revolution in husbandry that the artificial countries had formerly appropriated for themselves.
  • Still, lower heed was paid to factors other than icing food security similar as terrain, the poor growers and their education about the know- style of similar chemicals.
  • As a way forward, the policymakers must target the poor more precisely to insure that they admit lesser direct benefits from new technologies and those technologies will also need to be more environmentally sustainable.
  • Also, taking assignments from the history, it must be assured that similar enterprise include all of the heirs covering all the regions rather than sticking to a limited field.
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